Calvin's broad-scale attack on the abuses of the Roman Church continues with his criticisms of monks, priests, deacons, and other clerics.
The Geneva Reformer had little time for monks who claimed to fulfill a priestly function. Whatever virtues monastic life may hold, it is not a pastoral ministry in the biblical sense; nor was it ever treated that way in the early church. Because monks generally did not preach, exercise church discipline, or administer the sacraments, Calvin did not regard their work as priestly ministry.
The Protestant Reformation was not a renewal of doctrine only, but just as much (if not more so) a renewal of practice. This helps to explain why Book IV--which primarily concerns the sacraments, government, and ministry of the church--is by far the longest book in Institutes.
Calvin believed that the Roman Catholic Church had departed from the authentically biblical form of government that was practiced in the early church. Rather than protecting the right of a congregation to elect its own pastor, the Church in Rome appointed bishops of their own choosing.
Following Elijah’s stunning victory over the prophets of Baal in 1 Kings 18, he turns his attention to drought that continued to linger over the land. Back in 1 Kings 17, Elijah had announced a drought on the land because of the apostasy of the people. They had backed into Baalism and paganism. And their failure to remain faithful to the Lord carried the judgment of God removing his word from the people, signified by the lack of rain or dew. This was also a polemic against Baal, the storm god. The Baal cycle would be broken and the LORD would show himself to be God.
"With which person in the Bible do you most identify?" This is a question I have often asked others in the church over the years. Most of us lack even enough self-awareness to able to answer the question. Others among us have a propensity to appeal to the best characters in Scripture.
Charles Chauncy (1705-1787) was one of the most influential pastors in Boston during his life. He received his theological training at Harvard and served as pastor of First Church for nearly 60 years. He wrote numerous pamphlets between 1762-1771 against the British proposal to impose a Bishop in America. This sermon preached in 1747, addressed to rulers (the Governor, the council, and the Massachusetts House of Representatives), called them to be just and frequently to recall their subordination to God. Original punctuation has been preserved.
"Religion that is pure and undefiled before God, the Father, is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained from the world" (Jam. 1:27).
I have spent much time describing the views of the Reformed Protestants and Roman Catholics according to official theological statements and works by influential theologians. But where humans can be wrong, the Word of God never fails. Any theological debate must be rooted in the message of sacred Scripture.
Reformed Protestant Support
Michael T. Jahosky, The Good News of the Return of the King: The Gospel in Middle-Earth (Wipf & Stock, 2020), 238 pp.
Guy Prentiss Waters, Nicholas J. Reid, and John R. Muether, eds., Covenant Theology: Biblical, Theological, and Historical Perspectives (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2020).
Scipione Lentolo – A Firm Hand in Unstable Times
Henry ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia and the Birth of Christian Missions in the Hawaiian Islands
A Troubled Childhood